Materi MODAL Bahasa Inggris dan Contoh Soal

One of the auxiliary verbs used to show and add the different meanings connected with particular expressions

  • Modals + Be
  • Modals + Verb 1

e.g.  She may be sick today.
      You may leave this room.
Ø  Can
o   Present/future ability
To show present and future ability
e.g. I can do my homework
o   Request
To show request
e.g. Can I borrow your car?
o   Offering
To express an offering
e.g. Can I do something for you?
Ø  Could
o   Past ability
To show ability in the past
e.g. I could play basket ball when I was a child
o   Polite request
To show a polite request.
e.g. Could I borrow your pen, please?
Ø  May
o   Possibility
To show possibility in the present or future.
e.g. He may go to the library now.
o   Polite request
To show a polite request
e.g. May I borrow your pen?
o   Offering
To show offering
e.g. May I help you?
o   Hopes and wishes
To show hopes and wishes about future
e.g. May God be with you. May you rest in peace.

Ø  Might
o   Possibility
To show possibility in the present or future
e.g. He might be at the library now.
o   Polite request
To show a polite request
e.g. Might I borrow your pen?
Ø  Must – Have/Has/Had to
o   Obligation
To show obligation
e.g. You must study hard.
o   Prohibition
To show prohibition
e.g. You must not step on the grass.
o   Certainty
To show certainty
e.g. John is absent, he must be sick today.
Ø  Should/Ought to
o   Advisability
To show advisability
e.g. He should take a rest now.
o   Essence/recommendation
To show essence/recommendation
e.g. It is essential that you should go home early.
Ø  Would
o   Past willingness
      To show past willingness
      e.g. I would come to the party last night.
o   Offering
To show offering
e.g. Would you like some tea?
o   Request
To show a request
e.g. Would you mind closing the door?
Ø  Will/Shall
o   Willingness
To show about willingness in the present or future.
e.g. I’ll call you when I get back.
o   Request
To show a request
e.g. Will you go with me?

  1. Change the following sentences into the suitable forms.
1.      Tom can catch the fish in the sea (+)
_____________________________________________ (-)
_____________________________________________ (?Y/N)
_____________________________________________ (?-How)
2.      You must not bring an application letter now (-)
_____________________________________________ (+)
_____________________________________________ (?Y/N)
_____________________________________________ (?-What)
3.      Should they leave me alone here (?Y/N)
_____________________________________________ (+)
_____________________________________________ (-)
_____________________________________________ (?-Why)
4.      Bill could stay in this apartment for two weeks last month (+)
_____________________________________________ (-)
_____________________________________________ (?Y/N)
_____________________________________________ (?-How long)
5.      Would you drink some coffee at this restaurant tonight (?Y/N)
_____________________________________________ (+)
_____________________________________________ (-)
_____________________________________________ (?-What)

  1. Complete the following sentences using can/may/must/should. Sometimes you need the negatives.
1.      My father is very smart. He ________ speak five languages.
2.      Look! The girl is falling into the river. We ________ rescue her now.
3.      Tom gets failed in his exams. I think he ________ study harder.
4.      There is nobody in the room now. They ________ go out to buy something.
5.      If you don’t bring your dictionary, you ________ borrow mine now.
6.      You ________ touch the wall. My father has just painted it.
7.      You ________ care about her since she loves you very much.
8.      John is absent from school today. He ________ be sick.
9.      The bus 1 has just left. We ____wait another later.
10.  Sorry, I am very busy now. I ________ help you.

  1. Situational exercise 1
Give your responses or opinions to the following situations with the suitable modal auxiliaries. Use your own words to express your ideas.
1.      You want to go or study abroad. What must you do?
2.      Your father gives you a lot of money. What can you do?
3.      Your mother is sick today. What should you do?
4.      You come late and don’t see any friends in the class. Tell the possibilities about it.
5.      You’ll have the exams next week. What you must you do?
6.      Ann finds difficult to understand the lesson. What can you do?
7.      Jane looks tired. She’s been working for ten hours. What is your suggestion?
8.      Your teacher is coming late today. This never happens before. What do you think of possibilities about him?

Ø  Unimplemented past ability
To show unimplemented ability in the past
Could + Have + Been/Verb III

e.g. I could have gone home on time but the bus was late last night.
Ø  Past possibility
To show possibility in the past
Might + Have + Been/Verb III
e.g.  She was not here yesterday, she might have been sick.
Ø  Past certainty
To show certainty in the past

Must + Have + Been/Verb III

e.g. There was so much noise last night; our neighbor must have come              back from their holiday.
Ø  Past advisability
To show advisability in the past
Should + Have + Been/Verb III

            e.g.  She did not pass her exams last term, she should have studied hard.

The key notions              
*      Modal progressive
§  Present

Modals + be + Verb- ing

e.g. I should be sleeping now.
§  Past

Modal Perfect + Have + Been Verb - ing

e.g. He should have been sleeping at this time yesterday

*      Modal preparatory subject
      There can be combined with modals.
      e.g. There must be a rule to prevent the accident in the street.

*      Expressions
§  Special occasion
e.g. Everybody was died on the fire but she was able to escape.
§  Preference
e.g. I would rather tell you about the news.
§  Strong advice
e.g. You had better go home now.
§  Strong expectation
e.g. She is to be here, the class will start soon.
§  Typical suggestion
e.g. The play is boring; I may go home as well.
§  Mind cases
e.g. Would you mind if I closed the door? (offering/permission)
      Would you mind closing the door? (request)
§  Dare and Need case
Dare and Ned can used as modals.
e.g. I need to drink some water. (Modal)
      è I need water (Verb)
      I dare not see the body. (Modal)
      è I dare you play this game. (Verb)

  1. Complete the following sentences with Modal Perfect.
1.      The ground was wet this morning. It __________ (rain) last night.
2.      John was absent yesterday. He __________ (be) sick.
3.      Tom woke up late this morning. He ________ (sleep) earlier last night.
4.      Susan __________ (win) the contest but she got an accident on the way to the stage last month.
5.      John got lost to my house last week. He __________ (take) the wrong bus.
6.      I didn’t see Peter at home last night. He __________ (go) to the hall.
7.      Jane got failed in her interview because of being late last week. She __________ (come) earlier to the interview.
8.      Kim __________ (help) me do my homework but she was very busy last night.

  1. Use Modal Perfect to give your responses or opinions about the following situations.
1.      I didn’t see my jacket in the class this morning. I had left it there last night.
2.      I didn’t think that we would get lost to the museum yesterday. The bus was not in the way to go there.
(must) __________________________________________________
3.      Tom got accident last month. He drove his car 100 kilometers an hour.
4.      I promised to come home earlier but the bus was 30 minutes late last night.
(could) __________________________________________________
5.      Tom was absent from school yesterday. Nobody knew where Tom was.
(might) __________________________________________________
6.      It was raining hard when I wanted to leave home. Unfortunately, I didn’t bring my umbrella with me.
7.      I planned to take some pictures when I climbed the mountain. But I lost my camera on the way to get the top of the mountain.
8.      Everyone laughed when the film started. They watched a comedy show in the theatre last night.
(must) __________________________________________________

Choose the best choice to the following questions.
1.      We ____ when the traffic light shows red.
a. must  stop          b. may stop                  c. can stop       d. ought to stop
2.      He asked me whether he ____ my car to go to the party
a. must borrow      b. might borrow          c. may borrow d. would borrow
3.      I could not find the museum you told me about. I ____ the wrong bus
a. must have taken                                                c. might have taken    
b. should have taken                                 d. could have taken

4.      She did not tell me where she ____ after classes.
a. would go           b. should go                c. might go      d. must go
5.      “Does Anton know that Myrna had an accident yesterday?”
“I don’t think so, we ____ him as soon    as we were informed.”
a. may have told                                        c. should have told     
b. must have told                                      d. would have told
6.      “I can’t find my phone book in my bag”
“Well, you ____ in the car, let’s take a look.”     
a. must leave         b. will leave                 c. can leave      d. may leave
7.       “Don’t you think the driver is speeding?”
“Yes, I am afraid he ____ the lives of the passengers.”
a. may endanger    b. should endanger      c. must endanger d. can endanger
8.      “The players spent the night before the big match at a party.”
“That was foolish of them, they ____ to bed early.”
a. must have gone                                     c. could have gone     
b. should have gone                                  d. would have gone
9.      “The oil was frozen, mother could not use it to fry the fish.
“I am sure, it ____ very cold last night.
a. must have been                                      c. should have been    
b. might have been                                    d. could have been
10.  She looks so hungry and weak. She ____ some food.
a. may buy             b. must buy                 c. will buy       d. can buy
11.  She missed the train yesterday. She ____ earlier.
a. would have left b. should have left      c. must have left d. might have left
12.  “She did not answer the phone when I called her.”
“She ____ yesterday.”
a. must have slept                                      c. would have slept    
b. could have slept                                                d. should have slept
13.  I did not know there was a test yesterday, you ____ me about it.
a. should have told                                    c. could have told      
b. might have told                                     d. must have told
14.  “I wonder how old he is. He was Asti’s classmate in 1985, so he ____ at least twenty five now.
a. will be                b. shall be                    c. can be                      d. may be
15.  “I am sorry I was not able to finish typing your paper.”
“Well, it was my fault, I ____ you with too much work.”
a. might not have burdened                      c. could not have burdened
b. should not have burdened                    d. must not have burdened
16.  Rita has just missed the plane to Medan. She ____ at the airport at least two hours before the departure.
a. could have been                                                c. should have been    
b. might have been                                    d. must have been
17. Many people didn’t eat during the war ten years ago. They ____.
a. could have suffered                              c. must have suffered
b. may have suffered                                d. should have suffered

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